Soalan

 

Saya pelajar sebuah IPT yang menetap di asrama yang bercampur denga wanita bukan Islam. Menjadi satu bebanan bagi saya dan kawan-kawan saya untuk memelihara aurat dalam keadaan orang kafir tinggal sebilik dangan kami. Jadi saya ingin mendapat penjelasan dari ustazah tentang hukumnya jika kami mendedahkan aurat zahir kami kerana keadaan terpaksa.

Ustazah Shahidah Sheikh Ahmad

Jawapan:Saya sering ditanyakan masalah ini, terutamanya melibatkan mahasiswa dan pelajar yang tinggal sebilik dengan wanita bukan Islam.Kerana ini sedikit sebanyak akan mendatangkan kesukaran pergerakan seharian mereka.Menutup aurat bagi wanita muslimah merupakan sesuatu yang diwajibkan oleh syarak. Ianya merupakan suatu ketetapan yang pasti berdasarkan dalil daripada al-Quran dan sunnah. Seorang wanita muslimah itu dibenarkan menampakkan aurat mereka hanya kepada golongan-golongan tertentu seperti yang dijelaskan secara terperinci di dalam al-Quran Surah al-Nur  ayat 31 yang bermaksud :

“Dan katakanlah kepada perempuan-perempuan yang beriman supaya menyekat pandangan mereka (daripada memandang yang haram), dan memelihara kehormatan mereka; dan janganlah mereka memperlihatkan perhiasan tubuh mereka kecuali yang zahir daripadanya; dan hendaklah mereka menutup belahan leher bajunya dengan tudung kepala mereka; dan janganlah mereka memperlihatkan perhiasan tubuh mereka melainkan kepada suami mereka, atau bapa mereka atau bapa mertua mereka atau anak-anak mereka, atau anak-anak tiri mereka, atau saudara-saudara mereka, atau anak bagi saudara-saudara mereka yang lelaki, atau anak bagi saudara-saudara mereka yang perempuan, atau perempuan-perempuan mereka, atau …………” .hingga akhir ayat.

Berdasarkan ayat di atas, terdapat khilaf para ulama dalam hal ini. Allah tidak menyebut lafaz “an-nisaa” bermaksud wanita-wanita. Tetapi Ia menyebut “nisaaihinna” bermaksud wanita-wanita mereka.Lafaz “nisaaihinna” bermakna Allah menghadkan kebebasan perempuan Islam dalam ruang lingkup tertentu. Apakah ruang lingkup tersebut? Di sinilah terdapat perselisihan pendapat di antara para ulama’.Ada yang mengatakan bahawa boleh bagi wanita Muslimah membuka aurat hanya kepada wanita Muslimah sahaja. Pendapat ini menurut mazhab Syafie yang menyatakan auratnya sama sahaja dengan lelaki bukan mahram. Begitu juga keterangan yang dilihat seperti mana yang dihuraikan oleh Imam Ibn Kathir di dalam Tafsir al-Quran al-Azhim katanya  :“Firman Allah SWT ‘nisaa`ihinna’, maksudnya adalah, seorang wanita Muslimah dibolehkan menampakkan perhiasannya (auratnya) kepada wanita-wanita Muslimah yang lain. Namun ia tidak dibenarkan kepada ahlu zimmah (wanita-wanita kafir ahlu zimmah). Ini bertujuan agar wanita-wanita kafir itu tidak menceritakan aurat wanita-wanita Muslimah kepada suami-suami mereka. Walaupun hal ini mesti dihindari pada semua wanita, akan tetapi ianya lebih ditekankan lagi kepada wanita ahlu zimmah. [Tafsir Ibnu Katsir, juz 6, hal. 48]Imam Ibn Kathir menganggap wanita bukan muslim ahlu zimmah tidak memahami larangan Rasulullah SAW berkenaan menceritakan aurat wanita lain kepada suami mereka. Ini kerana wanita bukan Islam tidak boleh dipercayai kerahsiaan mereka (dalam menjaga amanah). Ditakuti aib dan aurat wanita muslim dihebah-hebahkan.Disebabkan alasan tersebut, beliau mendatangkan pendapat yang melarang secara terus dari menampakkan aurat kepada wanita bukan Islam.Begitu juga pandangan Syeikh ‘Atiyyah Saqqar yang menguatkan dalil dgn kata-kata Ibn Abbas yg mengharamkan aurat perempuan Islam dilihat oleh perempuan Yahudi atau Kristian. kerana takut perempuan kafir akan menceritakan atau mendedahkan kepada lelaki lain atau suami mereka tentang apa yg mereka lihat. Pendapat ini juga dipegang oleh Imam al-Qurtubi di dalam tafsir beliau dengan berdalilkan al-Athar (kata-kata sahabat) daripada Umar RA yg bermaksud:“Dan Umar RA menulis kepada gabenornya Abi Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah: “Bahawa telah sampai berita kepadaku perempuan ahli zimmah memasuki tempat mandian wanita islam. Maka tegahlah daripada demikian itu dan halalkan selain mereka (perempuan ahli zimmah).” Dan pendapat ini merupakan pendapat Jumhur Ulama.Jika dilihat kepada alasan beberapa pandangan Ulama ini, mereka mendatangkan hukum ini adalah berdasarkan adanya alasan tertentu. ‘Illah (alasan) tersebut ialah ‘agar aurat wanita muslimah tidak diceritakan kepada suami mereka’. Menurut kaedah fiqh, Ianya dikategorikan sebagai ‘illah ba’ithah. Iaitu hukum tersebut dibina berdasarkan kepada kewujudan dan ketiadaan illah. Apabila illah/alasan tersebut hilang maka gugurlah hukum asal tersebut. Namun apabila illah/alasan itu kembali, maka hukum asal digunapakai semula.Di dalam isu ini, sekiranya wanita bukan Islam diyakini tidak akan menceritakan aurat wanita Muslimah kepada lelaki lain, maka harus bagi wanita Muslimah menampakkan aurat kepada mereka.Ini bersesuaian dengan pandangan sebahagian ulama. Mereka tidak memandang bahawa menampakkan aurat kepada wanita bukan Islam akan membuatkan wanita bukan Islam tersebut secara pasti akan menceritakannya kepada suami mereka. Lalu mereka mengharuskan wanita Muslimah membuka aurat dihadaan wanita bukan Islam diatas keperluan dan  syarat-syarat tertentu. Antara syarat-syaratnya ialah dipastikan wanita bukan Islam (khusus kepada ahlu zimmah) tersebut dapat dipercayai ia tidak menceritakan perihal aurat wanita muslimah kepada lelaki lain. Lalu mereka membahagikan wanita bukan Islam itu samada ianya boleh dipercayai, ataupun tidak boleh dipercayai.Ini seperti mana yang dinyatakan oleh pandangan yang agak berlainan dari pandangan jumhur seperti Ibn al-Arabi al-Maliki didalam kitab beliau Ahkamul Qur’an, Jld 3, hal. 326, yang mengatakan boleh bagi wanita Muslimah membuka aurat kepada semua wanita yang baik akhlaknya dan baik hubungannya dengan wanita muslimah. Ini bermakna wanita Islam boleh membuka auratnya kepada wanita yang baik akhlaknya dan menjalin hubunan baik dengan mereka. Ia termasuk wanita bukan Islam. Jika wanita itu buruk akhlaknya termasuk wanita Islam sendiri, maka wanita Islam tidak boleh membuka auratnya. Pendapat ini juga disokong oleh Imam Fakhrurrazzi dan mufassir kontemporari  dari Saudi iaitu Syeikh Ali Al-Shabuni.Apa yang ingin dijelaskan oleh mereka disini adalah, aurat atau tidak bukanlah dinilai pada perbezaan agama, tetapi dinilai pada perbezaan akhlak dan budi pekerti. Maka harus bagi perempuan Islam mendedahkan aurat di hadapan perempuan lain yang elok budi pekerti dan akhlaknya walaupun bukan Islam. Dan pandangan ini dipersetujui oleh Fatwa Negeri Kedah dengan merujuk kepada kitab Hasyiyah Qalyubi juz. 3, hal. 211 mendatangkan alasan berbezanya keadaan zaman kini jika dilihat pergaulan wanita yang berlainan agama begitu meluas di sekolah-sekolah, di pusat-pusat pengajian tinggi, di asrama, di tempat bekerja dan lain-lain.Jika perihal menceritakan aurat terbatas hanya kepada agama, bagaimana dengan perempuan Islam yang rosak akhlak dan tidak bermoral seperti golongan lesbian? Maka sudah semestinya wajib menutup aurat di hadapan mereka kerana bergaul dengan mereka mendedahkan kepada bahaya dan mudarat sebagaimana bergaul dengan lelaki bukan muhrim.Disebabkan itulah Islam melarang seseorang wanita muslimah itu menceritakan kepada rakan-rakan yang bukan mahramnya perihal aurat mereka. Seperti menceritakan rupa bentuk tubuh badannya, kedudukan rambut, mahupun warna kulit anggota-anggota tertentu yang terselindung disebalik batasan-batasan aurat yang digariskan oleh Islam.Kesimpulannya di sini, mana-mana wanita Muslimah dilarang mendedahkan atau menceritakan aurat mereka kepada yang bukan mahram dan wanita bukan Islam tanpa keperluan tertentu yang mendesak. Mereka dibolehkan membuka aurat mereka kepada wanita bukan Islam hanya sekiranya terdapat keperluan dan meyakini wanita bukan Islam tersebut mampu merahsiakan aurat wanita Muslimah dari dihebahkan kepada lelaki lain. Namun harus diingat bahawa anggota zahir sahaja yg boleh dibuka spt lengan,kaki, rambut,leher dsb. Tetapi tidak boleh membuka yang sulit2 kpd mereka. Ini adalah juga untuk menjaga maruah diri wanita muslimah.Islam tidak menyusahkan wanita. Tetapi ia memuliakan dan memelihara maruah wanita.

 

WALLAHU ‘A’LAM

Rujukan:

  1. http://www.e-fatwa.gov.my/fatwa-negeri/aurat-wanita-di-hadapan-wanita-bukan-islam-0
  2. http://fikrahhalaqah.com/aurat-antara-perempuan-non-muslim-dengan-perempuan-muslim/
  3. http://johor.wanita.ikram.org.my/index.php/soal-jawab/soal-fiqh/118-hukum-wanita-islam-mendedahkan-aurat-kepada-wanita-kafir
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By Greg Stack
| July 20, 2012 |

So much about how and where kids learn has changed over the years, but the physical structure of schools has not. Looking around most school facilities — even those that aren’t old and crumbling –  it’s obvious that so much of it is obsolete today, and yet still in wide use.

1.   COMPUTER LABS. Students are connected to the Internet everywhere except in school. Regardless of their income bracket, most kids carry around a world of information in their pockets on their mobile devices, and yet we force them to power down and disconnect, and we confine them in obsolete computer labs. A modern school needs to have connectivity everywhere and treat computers more like pencils than microscopes.

2.   LEARNING IN PRESCRIBED PLACES. When you ask people to remember a meaningful learning experience from high school, chances are the experience didn’t take place in a space designed for learning. Working in groups, while on a trip, while doing a project or learning while talking with friends — those are the lasting, meaningful learning experiences. Yet we don’t design schools to accommodate these activities and focus only on the formal spaces.

3.  TEACHER-CENTERED CLASSROOM. Classrooms were designed for lecture and crowd control, with the teacher as the central figure of knowledge and authority.  The teacher had knowledge to impart through direct instruction and the current classroom structure works pretty well for this. This basic classrooms structure is the same, though in some schools, the chalkboard has been replaced by the interactive “Smart Board.” In progressive classrooms, the structure has changed: small groups of kids working, project work, and student presentations require rethinking this model.
4.   ISOLATED CLASSROOMS. Tony Wagner of the Harvard School of Education and the author of the Global Achievement Gap says: “Isolation is the enemy of improvement” and yet most schools are designed in a way that isolates teachers from each other. Teachers often learn to teach in isolated boxes and perpetuate that style throughout their career. Interior windows get “papered over” and blinds are shut. Yet out of school, people work in teams and are visually and often aurally connected.
5.   DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS. In order to break down the size of schools and to allow students to learn across curriculum, it’s essential to organize schools so that teachers of various subjects are located together. This not only emulates how people work today – in collaborative groups – but encourages teachers to consider students holistically, not only as they perform in a specific subject.

6.   SCHOOL CORRIDORS. Corridors take up a lot of valuable real estate in a school and are unoccupied most of the time. If rooms are arranged in groups around a common space, corridors are not necessary. And unused corridors can be made into informal learning spaces.

7.   TRADITIONAL SCHOOL LIBRARIES. In a modern school a library should be more of a learning commons able to support a variety of student activities as they learn to access and evaluate information.  Books have their place but they are not the end-all of libraries.  A learning commons is no longer the quiet sanctum of old, rather it is a space that can be central or distributed, used formally or informally, and one that can stimulate a spirit of inquiry in students.

8.   DARK, INDOOR GYMS. Most gyms have no access to natural light because of fear of glare that might interfere with sporting events. But with soaring energy costs, being able to turn off lights in a gym can amount to big savings. Designing glare-free gyms is possible but typically requires more natural light not less. Skylights, well placed windows and ample light create a great experience and a functional space.

9.   INSTITUTIONAL FOOD SERVICE. School food service usually involves folding tables that are placed and replaced throughout the day.  With cleanup activities it takes the commons/cafeteria out of action most of the day.  Why sacrifice this valuable space when it could serve multiple purposes? Creating spaces that require less movement of furniture while remaining flexible will allow them to be used more effectively.  Common spaces can also be less institutional, which in turn increases their flexibility.  Decentralizing food service allows students to eat in smaller groups and also allows multi-use of spaces.  Even if the food isn’t better, the space can be.

10.   LARGE RESTROOMS. Students try to avoid using school restrooms even in new schools because of concerns over privacy, bullying, and cleanliness contribute. To avoid restroom use, students stop drinking water and become dehydrated, and unable to focus. In Finland and other parts of Europe, they use individual restrooms that are located in the shared learning areas between classrooms. There seems to be a feeling of ownership for these, so they don’t get trashed. Also, they have more privacy, and there’s less bullying.

Greg Stack is an architect for NAC Architecture and specializes in developing best practices for the planning and design of educational environments. A version of this post originally appeared on School Design Matters.

SUBMITTED BY MICHAEL TRUCANO ON THU, 08/30/2012 – 09:44

in Colombia, entering a school of the past ... or the future?What will the school of the future look like?

Most likely, it will largely look like the school of today — but that doesn’t mean it should. Few will deny that it will most likely, and increasingly, contain lots of technology. Some may celebrate this fact, others may decry it, but this trend appears inexorable. To what extent will, or should, considerations around technology use influence the design of learning spaces going forward?

Of course, with the continued rise of online ‘virtual’ education, some schools don’t (or won’t) look like traditional ‘schools’ at all. Various types of structured or semi-structured learning already take place as part of things that we consider to be ‘courses’, even if sometimes such things don’t conform to some traditional conceptions of what a ‘course’ is or should be.  The massive online open course (or MOOC) in artificial intelligence offered by Stanford has received much recent attention, but the phenomenon is not necessarily new (even if its current exemplars are marked by many characteristics thatare indeed new, or much more developed, than those previously to be found in, for example, large ‘distance learning’ courses).

Let’s leave aside the case of the ‘virtual school’ for a moment and assume that there will continue to be a need for a physical space at which students and educators will gather and interact. (Such places may be access points to virtual education, or featured various types of so-called ‘blended learning’, where face-to-face interactions are complemented by interactions in the virtual world — or vice versa.)  Indeed, let’s assume, for our purposes here, that the school as a concept will presumably be along for many decades to come, and that it will have a physical representation of some sort. What might such a school look like, especially in the era of ICTs? Baca baki entri ini »

I have been recently posting about teacher’s professional development using web technologies and each time I do I would get emails asking for the tools I use personally.  I compiled a list of the top 8 platforms I use almost daily for expanding my knowledge and staying updated about the topics that interest me the most. Being a graduate researcher in the field of educational technology and from my own experience of several years  blogging in Educational Technology and Mobile Learning, I highly recommend the tools below and I personally view them as the most important platforms for growing professionally.1- TwitterThis is by no means my favourite web tool for growing professionally. I use it to see what the education community at #edchat and #edech are talking about and I also learn a great deal from the feeds of the people I follow. Here are some more links to help you tap into the potential of Twitter for professional development.( don’t forget to follow us : @medkh9 )7 Steps to Grow Professionally Using Twitter This Summer10 Ways Teachers Can Use Twitter for Professional Development10 Powerful Twitter Tools for Teacher’s Professional Development2- Google PlusThis is my second platform in importance. I have been recently spending a lot of time on Google Plus following the feeds other share and joining in the discussions held there. I am realy finding Google Plus a very promising platform for teachers professional development and here are some articles to help you tap into it. ( Follow us on Google Plus)10 Google Plus Communities Every Teacher Should Know aboutExcellent Teacher Tips on The Use of Google Plus in Education20 Reasons Why You Should Be Using Google Plus3- PinterestPinterest is another socialmedia website I turn to to look for the latest pins in the field of ed tech and education. The same principle as Twitter and GP, the more people you follow the more feeds you be able to access. ( Follow our Pinterest board )10 Pinterest Boards Every Teacher should Know about16 Ways to Use Pinterest in Education4-Scoop.itThis is my favourite digital content curation tool. I have created a specific board on it for Educational Technology and I am also following several other interesting boards. Once you subscribe to the boards you like, you will start getting updates about anything added to them.5-FeedlyThis is an RSS reader and one of the best free alternatives to Google Reader. Using Feedly, I get to read my subscriptions in real time and it hels me keep track of what the blos I am following are posting.6- FacebookI am not really using Facebook as much as the previously mentioned tools but still is worth mentioning here. The trick is to have two Facebook accounts: one personal and the second one for professional development. It is through the second account that you will like pages, blogs and websites to read their live feeds on your wall.14 Great Facebook Groups Every Teacher should Know aboutThe Ultimate Guide to Facebook in EducationTeacher’s Guide to Creating Facebook Groups for Students7- Paper.lyThis is a Twitter curation tool that allows users to turn their tweets into magazine style format. I have been reading several paper.lys papers and I also find new and interesting food for thought.8- LinkedInLinkedIn is a professional social networking tool and I use it to make acquaintances with other educators and teachers from all around the globe. It also hosts some interesting educator communities where teachers get to share teaching and learning resources. ( Follow us on LinkedIn).

SUBMITTED BY MICHAEL TRUCANO ON TUE, 06/26/2012 – 14:57

CO-AUTHORS: CARLA JIMENEZ IGLESIASROBERT HAWKINS

not everyone is riding these big waves ... yetMuch of what we read and hear discussed about ’emerging trends’ in technology use in education is meant largely for audiences in industrialized countries, or for more affluent urban areas in other parts of the world, and is largely based on observations on what is happening in those sorts of places. One benefit of working at a place like the World Bank, exploring issues related to the use of ICTs in education around the world, is that we get to meet with lots of interesting people proposing, and more importantly doing, interesting things in places that are sometimes not widely reported on in the international media (including some exciting ‘innovations at the edges’).

We are often asked questions like, “What trends are you are noticing that are a bit ‘under the radar’?” In case it might be of interest to wider groups and/or provoke some interesting discussion and comment, we thought we’d quickly pull a list of these sorts of things together here.

Inclusion on the list below doesn’t mean to imply that a given trend is ‘good’ … just that it is apparent and interesting to us in some way. We don’t mean to suggest that these trends are apparent everywhere; they are largely born of our personal experiences, and so are perhaps informed more by strings of compelling anecdotes and ‘gut feelings’ about what is relevant than on hard data that we can cite.  We have deliberately omitted a number of trends that we have noted in prior posts that didn’t necessarily have a specific developing country focus (including those mentioned in an entry on 10 Global Trends in ICT and Education that is now a few years old) or which are cited in widely read publications like the Horizon Report (whose K-12 edition for 2012 was released earlier this month). In some cases, the trends have been observed and noted in more ‘advanced’ countries for some time, but are only now gathering momentum (sometimes with a twist) in many less economically privileged parts of the world.  In other cases, the trends may have emerged in developed country contexts, and are finding particular resonance in some less economically developed places.

With that explanation out of the way, here are, in no particular order … Baca baki entri ini »

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